Tafsir ad Durrul Manthur- Introduction to surah Al Fatihah

Tafsir ad Durrul manthur
Imam Suyuti (rh)
Introduction to surah Al Fatihah

Imam Abd Ibn Humaid in his Tafseer narrated it from Ibrahim (rh). He said, “I asked Aswad about Surah al-Fatihah, is it part of the Qur’an?” He said yes.

Imam Whidi in Asbabun Nuzul and Salabi in his Tafseer narrate from Ali (ra):
نزلت فَاتِحَة الْكتاب بِمَكَّة من كنز تَحت الْعَرْش
Fatihatul kitab has been revealed in Makkah from under the treasury of the Throne.

Imam Ibn Abi Shaybah in Al Musannif, Abu Nuaim in Dalailun Nubuwah, Wahidi and Salabi narrated from Abu Maysarah Amr Bin Shurahbil. The Prophet (ﷺ) said to Khadija (ra): When I am alone, I hear a voice. By Allah! My fear! Something is going to happen. Khadija (ra) said,
معَاذ الله ماكان الله ليفعل بك فوَاللَّه إِنَّك لتؤدي الْأَمَانَة وَتصل الرَّحِم وَتصدق الحَدِيث
“Allah protects you, Allah will not throw you into any trouble.” By Allah! You are the trustee, the protector of kinship and the truthful.
Later when Abu Bakr (ra) came and at that time Rasulullah (ﷺ) was absent from the house. Then she told Abu Bakr about the condition of the Prophet (ﷺ). And she said, “Take Muhammad (ﷺ) to Waraka.” When the Prophet (ﷺ) came home, Abu Bakr took his hand and said, ‘Come with me to Waraqa. The Prophet (ﷺ) said to Abu Bakr, ‘Who told you these things?’ Abu Bakr (ra) said, Khadija (ra) said.
The Prophet (ﷺ) went to Waraka with Abu Bakr and narrated all the details. Said, when I am stay alone from behind, O Muhammad, O Muhammad! I heard a voice. Hearing this, I came back from there quickly. Waraqah said, “When you hear this voice again, do not run away, but listen to what it says and then come to me.”
So when the Prophet (ﷺ) was later alone, someone called him and said, O Muhammad! Read – Bismillahi’s Rahmanri Rahim. Alhamdulillahi Rabbil Alamin. He even read ‘Walad Dallin’. And he said, “Say La ilaha illa Allah.” Hearing this, the Prophet (ﷺ) came to Waraka and said everything.
Waraqa said to the Prophet (ﷺ), “Take the good news, take the good news. I bear witness that you are the one whose good news Jesus (peace be upon him) gave.” And this angel (Gabriel) came to you that he would come to Moses (peace be upon him). (Know that) You are a Prophet.

Imam Abu Nu’aym narrates from one of the Bani Salamah in Dalailun Nubuwa that when the youth of the Bani Salamah embraced Islam and the son of Amr ibn Jamuh also embraced Islam. Then Ibn al-Jamuh’s wife said to him, “You have heard your son narrate from that man.” Amr said, son! Did you hear that guy? The boy read up
{الْحَمد لله رب الْعَالمين} إِلَى قَوْله {الصِّرَاط الْمُسْتَقيم}
Amr said what a beautiful heart touching word. Are all the words so sweet? The boy said ‘Dad! More beautiful things have been said than this. ‘This is an incident before the Hijrah.

Imam Ibn Abi Shaybah In Musannaf, Abu Saeed Ibn Arabi in his Mu’ajam and Tabarani in Ausat narrates from Abu Hurairah –
إِنَإ إِبْلِسِينَ رِينَ أَنزَلنَ فَاتِحَة الْكَابَ وَنَزَلتتَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ
Iblis cried out when Surah Fatiha was revealed. And it was sent down in the holy city of Medina.

Imam Oki, Firayabi in his Tafsir, Abu Abdullah in Fazailul Quran, Ibn Abi Shaybah in Musannaf, Abd Ibn Humaid, Ibn Munzir in his Tafsir, Abu Bakr Ibn Ambari in Kitabul Masahef, Abush Shaykh in Al Azma , Abu Nuaym in Hilyah narrate from Muzahid (rh) . He said: Fatihatul kitab (Surah Al Fatiha) has been revealed in Medina.
Imam Abu Bakr ibn al-Ambari narrated in al-Masahif from Qatadah that Fatihatul kitab was revealed in Makkah.

Imam Darakutni and he said it Sahih and Bayhaqi narrated it from Abu Hurairah in his Sunan. He said that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:
إِذا قَرَأْتُمْ {الْحَمد} فاقرؤا {بِسم الله الرَّحْمَن الرَّحِيم} إِنَّهَا أم الْقُرْآن وَأم الْكتاب والسبع المثاني {بِسم الله الرَّحْمَن الرَّحِيم} إِحْدَى آياتها
When you recite Alhamdulillah (Surah Fatiha), you will also recite Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem. This is the Ummul Quran, Ummul Kitab and Saba Masani-the seven verses that are read over and over again. And Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim is one of his verses.

Imam Bukhari, Darimi in his Musnad, Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi, Ibn Munzir, Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Mardubiyah in their own Tafsir narrate from Abu Hurairah.The Prophet (ﷺ) said:
{الْحَمد لله رب الْعَالمين} أم الْقُرْآن وَأم الْكتاب والسبع المثاني
(Surah) Alhamdulillahi Rabbil Alameen, Ummul Quran, Ummul Kitab and Saba Masani.

Imam Salaabi Narrated from Abdul Jabbar bin Ala. He said that Sufyan bin Waynah used to call the Fatihatul kitab is Dafiyah (Eliminator of Evil).
Narrated by Imam Salabi from Afif bin Salim. He said, “I asked ‘Abdullah ibn Yahya ibn Abi Qasir to recite Surah al-Fatihah behind the Imam.” He said, “You are asking about Kifayah.” I said, what is Al Kifayah? He said, Surah Al-Fatiha. Don’t you know that it is enough for everything except yourself? But without himself is not enough for himself.

Imam Salabi narrated from shabi (rh). One man complained to him of back pain. Then he said, “Recite the Asasul Qur’an (the healing Qur’an).” He said what is Asasul Quran? He said, Fatihatul Kitab.

Imam Darakutni, Bayhaqi narrates from Abd Khair in his Sunan With Sahih Sanad that he asked Ali (ra) about Saba Masani or the seven verses recited repeatedly. He said, “That is Alhamdulillahi Rabbil Alameen (Surah Al-Fatiha).” He was told that there were six verses in it. He said, Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim is a verse.

Imam Tabarani in Al-Awsat, Ibn Mardubia in his Tafseer and Bayhaqi Narrates from Ali (ra) that the Prophet (ﷺ) said- (Surah) Alhamdulillahi Rabbil Alameen seven verses. Among them is a verse of Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim. It is Saba’ Masani, the great Qur’an, Ummul Qur’an and Fatihatul Kitab.

Imam Darakutni and Bayhaqi Narrated from Abu Hurairah (ra), When the Prophet (ﷺ) started reciting the Quran, he used to start with Bismillah. Abu Hurairah said, “Bismillah is a verse from the Book of Allah.” If you wish, recite Surah Al-Fatiha, it has seven verses.

Imam Ambari narrates from Umm Salama (ra) in his Al Masahif. He said that the Prophet (peace be upon him) recited Surah aদ Fatiha. Then he said, O Umm Salama! That is seven verses.
Imam Ahmad, Bukhari, Abu daud, Nasai, Hasan ibn sufiyan, Ibn jarir, Ibn hibban, Hakim in his kuna, Ibn mardubiyah, Abu nuaim in his maarifah and baihaqi Narrates from Abu Said bin Al-Mualla. He said- While I was praying in the Mosque, Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) called me but I did not respond to him. Later I said, O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! I was praying. He said, Didn’t Allah say’—
‏اسْتَجِيبُوا لِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ إِذَا دَعَاكُمْ‏
Give your response to Allah (by obeying Him) and to His Apostle when he calls you.- Surah Anfal 24
He then said to me, I will teach you a Sura which is the greatest Sura in the Qur’an, before you leave the Mosque. Then he got hold of my hand, and when he intended to leave (the Mosque),
I said to him, Didn’t you say to me, ‘I will teach you a Sura which is the greatest Sura in the Qur’an?’ He said, “Al-Hamdu-Li l-lah Rabbi-l-`alamin (i.e. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds) which is Al-Sab’a Al-Mathani (i.e. seven repeatedly recited Verses) and the Grand Qur’an which has been given to me.”

Imam Abu ubaid, Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Darimi, Nasai, Ibn khuzaimah, Ibnul Munzir, Hakim and he is says Sahih, Ibn mardubiah, Abu jar al haruyi in his Fadailul Quran, and Baihaqi in his suna narrates from Abu huraira (ra) that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) came out to Ubayy bin Ka’b, and the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: O Ubayy! And he was performing Salat, so Ubayy turned around but he did not respond to him, so Ubayy finished his Salat quickly.
Then he turned to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and said: ‘As-Salamu ‘Alaikum, O Messenger of Allah!’ The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: ‘Wa ‘Alaikum As-Salam – what prevented you from responding to me when I called you Ubayy?’ He said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! I was performing Salat.’ So he said: ‘Do you not find among what Allah revealed to me:
‏اسْتَجِيبُوا لِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ إِذَا دَعَاكُمْ‏
Respond to Allah and to the Messenger when they call you to what gives you life?’- Suarah Anafal 24
He said: ‘Of course, I shall not repeat that, Insha Allah.’ He said: ‘Would you like for me to teach you a Surah the likes of which has neither been revealed in the Tawrah, nor the Injil, nor the Zabur, nor in the entire Qur’an?’ He said: “Yes, O Messenger of Allah!’
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: ‘What do you recite in your Salat?’ He said: ‘I recite Umm Al-Qur’an.’ So the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: ‘By the One in Whose Hand is my soul! The like of it has neither been revealed in the Tawrah, nor the Injil nor the Zabur, nor in the Furqan. It is the seven oft-repeated, and the Magnificent Qur’an which I was given.'”

Imam Darimi, Tirmidhi and he says it Hasan, Nasai, Abdullah Ibn Hamble in his Jawaydul Musnad, Ibnuz zurays in Fadailul Quran, Ibn Jarir, Ibn Khuzaymah, Hakim and he says it Sahih from Abu Hurairah (ra), Ubai Ibn Kaab He said that the Prophet (ﷺ) said that Allaah did not send down anything equivalent to the Ummul Quran in the Torah and the Injeel. And that is Sabu’l Masani. (Allah says) It is divided between me and My slave. My servant has what he wants.

Imam Muslim, Nasai, Ibn Hibban, Tabarani and Hakim Narrates from Abdullah Ibn Abbas. He said that one day Jibril (peace be upon him) sat next to the Prophet (ﷺ). At that moment he heard a loud sound of the door opening from above and said, “It is a door in heaven.” It opened today – never before. And through this door an angel came down to earth. He never came to earth before this day.
Then he greeted them and said, “Accept the good news of the two lights given to you.” It has not been given to any other prophet before you. And those two lights are Fa-Tihatul Kitab or Surah Al-Fatiha and the last part of Surah Al-Baqara. You will be given the requested subject in the middle of each letter you read.

Imam Tabarani in Al-Awsat narrated from Abu Zayd with Daif Sanad. And he said, “I was with the Prophet (ﷺ) on a street in Madinah.” The Prophet (ﷺ) heard a person reciting the Ummul Kitab in prayer. Prophet (ﷺ) stood up. He listened to his recitation attentively. He even finished the recitation. Then the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “There is nothing on earth like this Surah.”
Imam Abu Ubayd, Ahmad, Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi, Nasai, Ibn Majah and Bayhaqi narrated from Abu Saeed (ra). He said
“The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) dispatched us on a military expedition. We camped with some people and asked them to entertain us but they did not entertain us. Their leader was stung so they came to us saying: ‘Is there anyone among you who can treat a scorpion sting with Ruqyah?’
I said: ‘Yes I can. But I will not do any Ruqyah until you give us some sheep.’ They said: ‘Then we shall give you thirty sheep.’ We accepted that, and I recited Al-Hamdu [Lillah] seven times. He became better and we took the sheep.”
He said: “We became concerned about that being permissible and said: ‘Do not be hasty until we reach the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W).” He said: “When we arrived with him I mentioned what I did to him. He (S.A.W) said: ‘How did you know that it was a Ruqyah? Take the sheep, and assign me a share among you.'”

Imam Ahmad, Bukhari and baihaqi in his sunan Narrates from Ibn Abbas (ra).He said- Some of the companions of the Prophet (ﷺ) passed by some people staying at a place where there was water, and one of those people had been stung by a scorpion. A man from those staying near the water, came and said to the companions of the Prophet, “Is there anyone among you who can do Ruqya as near the water there is a person who has been stung by a scorpion.” So one of the Prophet’s companions went to him and recited Surat-al-Fatiha for a sheep as his fees. The patient got cured and the man brought the sheep to his companions who disliked that and said, “You have taken wages for reciting Allah’s Book.”
When they arrived at Medina, they said, ‘ O Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ)! (This person) has taken wages for reciting Allah’s Book” On that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “You are most entitled to take wages for doing a Ruqya with Allah’s Book.”

Imam Ahmad and Bayhaqi in Shuabul Iman narrated from Jabir bin Abdullah (ra) with better sanad. The Prophet (ﷺ) said to him, ‘Shall I not tell you of a surah which has been revealed in last into the Quran?’ I said, O Messenger of Allah! Tell me. He said, Fatihatul Kitab. I think is that the Prophet (ﷺ) said
فِيهَا شِفَاء من كل دَاء
This surah cures all diseases.

Imam Tabarani in Al-Awsat, Darakutni in Al-Afrad, , and Ibn Asakir with Daif Sanad Narrated from from Sayeb bin Yazid. He said
عوذني رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم بِفَاتِحَة الْكتاب تفلا
The Prophet (ﷺ) recited Surah Al-Fatiha and breathed on me.

Imam Saeed Ibn Mansur from his Sunan and Bayhaqi in Shuabul Iman narrated from Abu Saeed Al Khudri (ra). The Prophet (ﷺ) said:
فَاتِحَة الْكتاب شِفَاء من السم
Fatihatul Kitab is an antidote to poison.
Imam Darimi and Bayhaqi in Shuabul Iman narrated from Abdul Malik bin Umayr in the Sanad of Sikah Rabi. He said that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:
فَاتِحَة الْكتاب شِفَاء من كل دَاء
Surah Fatiha is the cure for every disease.

Imam Salabi Narrated from Muawiyah bin Salih. The Companions of the Prophet (ﷺ) passed by a person who had a headache. One of the Companions recited the entire Quran in his ear and breathed his last. As a result, he recovered. Then the Prophet (ﷺ) said, this is the Ummul Quran, the cure for every disease.

introduction to surah Al Fatiha to be continue 

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